Numerous studies show racial disparities in the use of the procedure. In particular, African-American patients are less likely than white patients to endure total joint replacement significantly. To explore potential known reasons for this racial disparity, Dr. Hausmann and her team examined whether orthopaedic surgeons were less likely to recommend total joint replacement to African-American patients compared to white individuals, and whether African-American patients were less likely to undergo the procedure within half a year of study enrollment. The experts recruited sufferers from orthopedic surgery clinics in two large, tertiary care Veterans Affairs hospitals in Pittsburgh and Cleveland. In total, 120 African-American and 337 white individuals looking for treatment for knee or hip osteoarthritis had been enrolled.The fallout from Moon’s confession: 28 content in various journals released by Informa had been retracted, and something editor resigned. An editor at one of the journals published by Sage Publications became suspicious, sparking a thorough and lengthy investigation, which resulted in the retraction of 60 articles in July 2014. At the final end of 2014, BioMed Central and other publishers alerted the international Committee on Publication Ethics to new types of systematic attempts to control journals’ peer-review procedures.