It really is unclear what motivated the guest editors to engage in such fraud, nor offers it been determined whether the authors of the manuscripts involved participated in the deception in any way. There are many lessons to be learned from these instances of peer-review and peer-reviewer fraud. One can be that the electronic manuscript-handling systems that most journals make use of are as susceptible to exploitation and hacking as various other data systems. Chen and Moon, for instance, both abused an attribute of ScholarOne: the e-mail messages sent to scholars inviting them to examine a manuscript consist of log-in information, and whoever receives those messages can sign in to the operational system.She previously offered as Senior Director, Medical Information, at Endo Wellness Solutions and has held positions in hospice/palliative treatment and community practice. She is a graduate of the University of Arizona University of Pharmacy . Alvarez is currently serving her second term on the APhA Board of Trustees and sits on the panel of the Pharmacy Leadership and Education Institute . She’s held numerous elected and appointed positions, including APhA–ASP National Member-at-Large, Phi Lambda Sigma National President, Member of the Pharmacy Technician Qualification Board’s Certification Phi and Council Delta Chi Grand Vice President for Collegiate Affairs. Alvarez is an associate of the California Pharmacists Association and participates in innovator advancement as a facilitator, content developer and program director.